Magnet pictures Pope Clement VII (1478-1534), born Giulio de Giuliano de Medici. Clement VII was English Tudor king Henry VIII's nemesis in that he refused to grant an annulment of Henry's marriage to Catherine of Aragon. Clement's refusal was born of his wish to placate Holy Roman Emperor, Charles V of Spain. Charles V was Catherine of Aragon's nephew. Catherine did not want her marriage to be annulled and Charles V pressured Pope Clement VII not to grant the annulment. Clement's delayed verdict resulted in Henry rejecting Rome's rule in the Catholic church of England, bringing about the English Reformation. English Parliament passed the Act of Supremacy, establishing an independent Church of England. Clement VII's actions also contributed to the spread of Protestantism/Lutheranism.
Clement grew his beard as a symbol of mourning over the sack of Rome by Charles V in 1527 and never shaved it off. The next 24 Popes followed his lead and wore beards. Prior to Clement, cannon law required clean shaved Popes. A more important legacy was Clement's commissioning Michelangelo to paint the Last Judgment in the Sistine Chapel shortly before Clement's death.